Height Reference Systems
- The German height reference system
- The European height reference system
- Determination of the height reference surface of Germany
- GCG2011 - German Combined QuasiGeoid 2011
The European height reference system
The national height reference systems of the European countries are tied to different reference points (tide gauges). Due to this fact and also as a result of the differences in the theoretical definition of heights, the reference heights may differ from each other by several dm, in maximum even up to 2 m.
Therefore, in order to realize a uniform height system throughout Europe the UELN (United European Levelling Network) was established as an unification of the leveling networks of European countries. Presently, the 1st order leveling networks of 26 European countries are contained in the UELN. The Data and Analysis Centre of the UELN is located at BKG.
The results of the UELN adjustment of 1998 were handed over to the participating countries at beginning of 1999. One year later this solution was used as first realization of the EVRS and was named EVRF2000.
After 10 years a lot of national leveling networks had been replaced by new measurements. A new adjustment was performed which differs apart from the observation data mainly in the datum definition and the applied tidal system from EVRF2000. At the EUREF symposium 2007 in Brussels the EVRF2007 was adopted as new realization of EVRS.
Detailed information about the European Vertical Reference System is available at special websites - EVRS.
The Information System for European Coordinate Reference Systems CRS-EU contains, besides a standardized description of the height systems, also transformation parameters for the transformation of the different national systems into the pan-European system.